UTILIZATION: Companion, Watch-and Guard Dog.
DATE OF PUBLICATION OF THE VALID ORIGINAL STANDARD:
CLASSIFICATION FCI: Group 2 Pinscher and Schnauzer
type, Molossian type and Swiss mountain and cattledogs.
Section 2 Molossian type.
Without working trial.
Back and Loin
- Set on of the tail
- Carpal joint
- Upper thigh
- Lower thigh
- Point of the hock
- Rear Pastern
forerunners of the present day Deutsche Dogge one must
look at the old "Bullenbeisser" (bulldog) as
well at the "Hatz-and Sauruden" (Hunting and
wild boar hounds) which were midway between the strong
English type Mastiffs and a fast, agile Sighthound. The
term "Dogge" was first understood to mean a
large, strong dog which did not have to be of any
particular breed. Later, particular names such as "Ulmer
Dogge", "Englische Dogge", "Danische
Dogge", "Hatzrude", "Saupacker"
and "Grosse Dogge", defined different types of
these dogs, according to colour and size. In the year 1878
a committee of seven was formed in Berlin, consisting of
active breeders and judges under the chairmanship of
Dr.Bodinus, which made the decision to classify all the
forenamed varieties as "Deutsche Doggen". Thus
the foundation was laid for the breeding of a seperate
In the year 1880, on the occasion of a show in Berlin, the
first standard for Doggen was set down. This has been
controlled by the "Deutscher Doggen-Club 1888 e.V."
and altered on a number of occasions through the years.
The present day version conforms to F.C.I. model.
general appearance of the Great Dane combines a tall,
strong, well made body with pride, strength and elegance.
Through substance paired with nobility, balance, well
proportioned outline as well as a specially expressive
head, the Great Dane strikes the onlooker as a noble
statue. He is the Apollo amongst all dog breeds.
is nearly square, this applies in particular to males. The
length of back (point of sternum to pelvic tuber) should
not exceed height at withers in dogs by 5%, in bitches by
10%. Height at withers : Dogs at least 80 cm.
Bitches at least 72 cm.
kind and devoted to his owners, specially to children;
reserved towards strangers. A self-assured, unafraid,
easily guided and docile companion and family dog is
required. He must have a high resistance to any
provocation and must not be aggressive.
with the general appearance. Long, narrow, striking, full
of expression, fineley chiselled (especially under the
eyes). Superciliary ridges well developed but not
protruding. The distance from the tip of the nose to the
clearly defined stop and from the stop to the only lightly
defined occipital bone, should be as equal as possible.
The upper line of the foreface and skull should run
parallel. The head must appear narrow when seen from the
front, but with the bridge of nose as broad as possible.
Muscles in cheeks only lightly defined and in no way
Nose: Well developed, more
broad than round with large nostrils. Must be black with
the exception of harlequin (white with black patches)
coloured Great Danes. In these a black nose is desirable
but a butterfly nose (partly depigmented) or flesh
coloured nose is tolerated.
Muzzle: Deep and as
rectangular as possible. Well defined corners of lips.
Dark pigmented lips. In harlequins not totally pigmented
or flesh coloured lips are tolerated.
developed broad jaws. Strong, healthy and complete scissor
bite (42 teeth according to usual tooth formation).
Eyes: Medium size, round, as
dark as possible with lively intelligent expression. In
blue Great Danes slightly lighter eyes are permissible. In
harlequins light eyes or two differently coloured eyes can
be tolerated. Lids should be close fitting.
Ears: Set on high, drooping
by nature, medium size. Front rims lying close to the
Neck: Long, clean, muscular.
Well defined set on, tapering slightly towards the head
with arched neckline. Carried upright but inclined forward
on a slight slant.
The highest point of the strong body. Formed by the
highest point of the shoulder-blades which extends beyond
the spinal processes..
Back: Short and taut. Falling
away imperceptibly to the rear..
Loins: Slightly arched, broad,
Croup: Broad, well muscled.
Falling away very slightly from the sacrum to the tail
set-on and merging imperceptibly with the latter..
Tail: Reaching to the hocks.
Set on high and broad, tapering evenly towards the tip. In
repose hanging down with natural curve. When excited or
moving, can be carried slightly sabre-fashion but not
markedly above the back line. Coarse hair underneath the
tail not desirable..
Brisket: Reaching to the
elbows. Well sprung ribs reaching far back. Chest of good
width with well defined forechest..
Lower line: Belly well tucked
up towards rear, forming a gently curved line with the
underside of the brisket.
Strongly muscled. The long slanting shoulder-blade forms
an angle of approximately 100 to 110 degrees with the
Upper Arm: Strong and
muscular, close fitting, should be slightly longer than
Elbows: Turned neither out
Lower Arm: Strong, muscular.
Seen from front and side, completely straight.
Pastern joint: Strong, firm,
only slightly distinguishable from the structure of the
Pasterns: Strong. Straight
when seen from front. Seen from side, slanted very
slightly towards the front.
Front Feet: Round, well
arched and tightly closed (cat food). Nails short, strong,
as dark as possible.
skeleton is covered by strong muscles which make the croup,
hips and upper thighs appear broad and rounded. The strong
well angulated hind legs, seen from behind, are parallel
to the front legs.
Upper Thigh: Long, broad,
Stifles: Strong, standing
almost vertically under the hip joint.
Lower Thigh: Long,
approximately same length as upper thigh. Well muscled.
Hock Joints: Strong, sturdy,
turning neither in nor out.
Hocks: Short, strong, almost
perpendicular to the ground.
Hind Feet: Rounded, well
arched and tight (cat foot). Nails short, strong, as dark
lithe, covering the ground and slightly springy. The legs
seen from either front or back must be parallel in
fitting. In solid colours well pigmented. In harlequins
the distribution of pigment is mostly in accordance with
of coat: Very short and dense, smooth and shiny
Colours: The Great Dane is
bred in three separate varieties: Fawn and brindle /
harlequin and black / and blue.
Fawn: Pale golden fawn to
deep golden fawn. Black mask desired. Small white marks on
chest and toes not desirable
Brindle: Basic colour pale
golden fawn to deep golden fawn with black stripes running
out in direction of ribs. The markings must be as clear
and regular as possible. Black mask desired. Small white
marks on chest and toes undesirable.
White with black patches (Harlequins,
formerly "Tigerdoggen"): Basic colour
pure white, as far as possible without any ticking. Jet
black,irregular, well broken patches well distributed on
the whole body. Gray or brownish patches not desired.
Black: jet black, white
markings permitted. Included here are also "Manteltiger"
in which the black covers the body like a blanket but
muzzle, throat, chest, belly, legs and tip of tail may be
Blue: Clear steel blue, white
markings on chest and feet permissible.
departure from the foregoing points should be considered a
fault and the seriousness with which the fault is regarded
should be in exact proportion to its degree. This applies
particulary to the following departures from the standard
General Appearance: Lack of
correct gender characteristics, lack of harmony. Too light,
Temperament: Lack of self
assurance, nervous, easily provoked.
Head: Upper lines of foreface
and skull not parallel, apple head, wedge shaped head. Too
little stop, over developed muscles in cheeks.
Muzzle: Pointed, lacking in
flews, flews too pendulous. Bridge of nose dished, Roman
nose or aquiline nose.
Mouth / Teeth: Any departure
from a complete set of teeth (only the absence of both PM1
in the lower jaw can be tolerated); irregular position of
individual incisors as long as bite remains overwhelmingly
closed. Too small teeth. Pincer bite.
Eyes: Slack lids, haw too
red. Light, piercing or amber coloured eyes. Watery blue
eyes or two different coloured eyes in all solid colours.
Eyes too far apart or slit eyes.
Ears: Set on too high or too
low. Standing off sideways or lying quite flat to the
Cropped ears: shape and
length ill matched with the head, not carried evenly taut
Neck: Short, thick neck, ewe
neck, throatiness or dewlap.
Back: Sway back, roach back,
too long in back. Backline running up towards rear.
Croup: Falling away steeply
or completely level.
Tail: Too thick, too long or
too short. Set on too low or too high above the back line.
Hook shaped or squirrel tail as well as tail turned
sideways. Tail which is damaged, thickened at the tip or
has been docked.
Thoracic Cage: Flat or
barrelshaped ribs. Lack of width or depth of chest.
Strongly protruding sternum.
Lower Line: Belly line not
sufficiently tucked up. Teats which have not retracted.
angulation. Light bone, weak muscles. Stance not vertical.
Shoulders: Loose, loaded.
Steep set of shoulder-blade.
Elbows: Loose, turned in or
Fore Arm: Distorted.
Distended above the pastern.
very flexible or knuckled over.
Pastern: Too slanted or too
steep in position.
Hindquarter: Too much or too
little angulation. Cow hocks, too narrow or bow legged
Hocks: Distended, unstable.
Feet: Flat, splayed, long
Movement: Covering too little
ground, restricted action. Frequent or constant pacing.
Lack of co-ordination between front and hind action.
Make up: Stockhaar (double coat), dull coat.
Fawn: Gray-fawn, blue-fawn, isabella (cream) - fawn
or dirty fawn.
Brindle: Ground colour silver blue or isabella.
Harlequin: Blue-Gray ticked ground colour. Largish
fawn-gray or blue-gray patching.
Black: Fawn, brown or blue-black colour.
Blue: Yellowish or black-blue colour.
Mouth / Teeth: Overshot,
undershot, wry mouth.
Eyes: Entropion, ectropion.
Tail: Kink in tail.
Aggressiveness or fear biting.
Nose: Liver colour or split
Fawn or brindle Great Danes with white blaze, white
neck collar ring, white feet or "stockings" and
white tip of tail.
Blue Great Danes with white blaze, white neck collar ring,
white feet or "stockings" and white tip of tail.
Harlequin Great Danes which have white without any
black (albinos), as well as deaf dogs. So called
china-brindles (they show predominantly blue gray, fawn or
brindle patches); "gray-brindles" (these have
gray ground colour with black patches).
Height: Below minimum height.
must have two apparently normal testicles fully descended
into the scrotum.